Type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition in which the body becomes resistant to the normal effects of insulin and/or gradually loses the capacity to produce enough insulin in the pancreas. We do not know what causes type 2 diabetes. This diabetes is associated with modifiable lifestyle risk factors. Type 2 diabetes also has strong genetic and family related risk factors.

Type 2 diabetes:

  • Is diagnosed when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin (reduced insulin production) and/or the insulin does not work effectively and/or the cells of the body do not respond to insulin effectively (known as insulin resistance)
  • Represents 85–90 per cent of all cases of diabetes
  • Usually develops in adults over the age of 45 years but is increasingly occurring in younger age groups including children, adolescents and young adults
  • Is more likely in people with a family history of type 2 diabetes or from particular ethnic backgrounds
  • For some the first sign may be a complication of diabetes such as a heart attack, vision problems or a foot ulcer
  • Is managed with a combination of regular physical activity, healthy eating and weight reduction. As type 2 diabetes is often progressive, most people will need oral medications and/or insulin injections in addition to lifestyle changes over time. type 2 diabetes

What happens with type 2 diabetes?

Type 2 diabetes develops over a long period of time (years). During this period of time insulin resistance starts, this is where the insulin is increasingly ineffective at managing the blood glucose levels. As a result of this insulin resistance, the pancreas responds by producing greater and greater amounts of insulin, to try and achieve some degree of management of the blood glucose levels.

As insulin overproduction occurs over a very long period of time, the insulin producing cells in the pancreas wear themselves out, so that by the time someone is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, they have lost 50 – 70% of their insulin producing cells. This means type 2 diabetes is a combination of ineffective insulin and not enough insulin. When people refer to type 2 diabetes as a progressive condition they are referring to the ongoing destruction of insulin producing cells in the pancreas.

Initially, type 2 diabetes can often be managed with healthy eating and regular physical activity. Over time most people with type 2 diabetes will also need tablets and many will eventually require insulin. It is important to note that this is the natural progression of the condition, and taking tablets or insulin as soon as they are required can result in fewer long-term complications.

What causes type 2 diabetes?

Diabetes runs in the family. If you have a family member with diabetes, you have a genetic disposition to the condition.

While people may have a strong genetic disposition towards type 2 diabetes, the risk is greatly increased if people display a number of modifiable lifestyle factors including high blood pressure, overweight or obesity, insufficient physical activity, poor diet and the classic ‘apple shape’ body where extra weight is carried around the waist.

People are at a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes if they:

  • have a family history of diabetes
  • are older (over 55 years of age ) – the risk increases as we age
  • are over 45 years of age and are overweight
  • are over 45 years of age and have high blood pressure
  • are over 35 years of age and are from an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander background
  • are over 35 years of age and are from Pacific Island, Indian subcontinent or Chinese cultural background
  • are a woman who has given birth to a child over 4.5 kgs (9 lbs), or had gestational diabetes when pregnant, or had a condition known as Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

 

Symptoms

Many people with type 2 diabetes display no symptoms. As type 2 diabetes is commonly (but not always) diagnosed at a later age, sometimes signs are dismissed as a part of ‘getting older’. In some cases, by the time type 2 diabetes is diagnosed, the complications of diabetes may already be present.

Symptoms include:

  • Being excessively thirsty
  • Passing more urine
  • Feeling tired and lethargic
  • Always feeling hungry
  • Having cuts that heal slowly
  • Itching, skin infections
  • Blurred vision
  • Gradually putting on weight
  • Mood swings
  • Headaches
  • Feeling dizzy
  • Leg cramps

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Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes

One of the most undemanding and the most workable ways to knock over blood sugar amount, eliminate the dangers of “cardiovascular disease,” and perk up health and welfare in general is exercise.

In spite of that, in today’s inactive world where almost every indispensable job can be carried out online, from the ergonomic chair in front of a computer, or with a streaming line of messages from a fax machine, exercising can be a hard argument to win over.

The Weight of Exercise

Everyone should exercise, yet the health experts tells us that only 30% of the United States population gets the recommended thirty minutes of daily physical activity, and 25% are not active at all. In fact, inactivity is thought to be one of the key reasons for the surge of type 2 diabetes in the U.S., because inactivity and obesity promote insulin resistance.

The good news is that it is never too late to get moving, and exercise is one of the easiest ways to start controlling your diabetes. For people with type 2 diabetes in particular, exercise can improve insulin sensitivity, lower the risk of heart disease, and promote weight loss.

Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes is on the rise. The number of people diagnosed with diabetes every year increased by 48% between 1980 and 1994. Nearly all the new cases are Type 2 Diabetes, or adult-onset, the kind that moves in around middle age. Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes include increased thirst, appetite, and need to urinate; feeling tired, edgy, or sick to the stomach; blurred vision; tingling or loss of feeling in the hands.

The causes of type 2 diabetes are complex and not completely understood, although research is uncovering new clues at a rapid pace.

However, it has already been proven that one of the reasons for the boom in type 2 diabetes is the widening of waistbands and the trend toward a more deskbound and inactive lifestyle in the United States and other developed countries. In America, the shift has been striking; in the 1990s alone, obesity increased by 61% and diagnosed diabetes by 49%.

For this reason, health experts encourage those who already have type 2 diabetes to start employing the wonders that exercise can do for them. Without exercise, people have the tendency to become obese. Once they are obese, they have bigger chances of accumulating type 2 diabetes.

Today, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services reports that over 80% of people with type 2 diabetes are clinically overweight. Therefore, it is high time that people, whether inflicted with type 2 diabetes or not, should start doing those jumping and stretching activities.

Getting Started

The first order of business with any exercise plan, especially if you are a “dyed-in-the-wool” sluggish, is to consult with your health care provider. If you have cardiac risk factors, the health care provider may want to perform a stress test to establish a safe level of exercise for you.

Certain diabetic complications will also dictate what type of exercise program you can take on. Activities like weightlifting, jogging, or high-impact aerobics can possibly pose a risk for people with diabetic retinopathy due to the risk for further blood vessel damage and possible retinal detachment.

If you are already active in sports or work out regularly, it will still benefit you to discuss your regular routine with your doctor. If you are taking insulin, you may need to take special precautions to prevent hypoglycemia during your workout.

Start Slow

For those who have type 2 diabetes, your exercise routine can be as simple as a brisk nightly neighborhood walk. If you have not been very active before now, start slowly and work your way up. Walk the dog or get out in the yard and rake. Take the stairs instead of the elevator. Park in the back of the lot and walk. Every little bit does work, in fact, it really helps a lot.

As little as 15 to 30 minutes of daily, heart-pumping exercise can make a big difference in your blood glucose control and your risk of developing diabetic complications. One of the easiest and least expensive ways of getting moving is to start a walking program. All you need is a good pair of well-fitting, supportive shoes and a direction to head in.

Indeed, you do not have to waste too many expenses on costly “health club memberships,” or the most up-to-date health device to start pumping those fats out. What you need is the willingness and the determination to start exercising to a healthier, type 2 diabetes-free life.

The results would be the sweetest rewards from the effort that you have exerted.

Diabetes–What You Need to Know About This Hidden Danger

Diabetes is a disease in which blood glucose levels are above normal. Most of the food we eat is turned into glucose (sugar) for our bodies to burn to create energy. The pancreas, an organ that lies near the stomach, produces a hormone called insulin to help glucose get into the cells of our bodies. When you have diabetes, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t use its own insulin as well as it should. This causes large amounts of sugar to build up in your blood.

The actual cause of diabetes continues to be a mystery, although both genetics and environmental factors such as obesity appear to play major roles. Diabetes can cause serious health complications including heart disease, blindness, kidney failure, and lower-extremity amputations. According to the Center for Disease Control, diabetes is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. As of 2002, 18.2 million people in the U.S.–6.3 percent of the population–had diabetes, with 1.3 million new cases being diagnosed each year. The National Institutes of Health also estimate that an additional 5.2 million people have diabetes without actually being aware of it.

There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, which was previously called insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile-onset diabetes, accounts for about 10% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes, which was called non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or adult-onset diabetes, type diabetes mellitus, accounts for the remaining 90%. Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that only pregnant women get. If not treated, it can cause problems for both the baby and the mother. Gestational diabetes develops in 2% to 5% of all pregnancies, but usually disappears when the pregnancy is over.

Diabetes is a serious body cell disease and phrases such as “a touch of diabetes” or “your blood sugar is a little high” tend to dismiss the fact that diabetes is a major killer of Americans. In addition to the lives that are lost, diabetes has a tremendous economic impact in the United States. The National Diabetes Education Program estimates the cost of diabetes in 2002 was $132 billion. Of this amount, $92 billion was due to direct medical costs and $40 billion due to indirect costs such as lost workdays, restricted activity, and disability due to diabetes. The average medical expenditure for a person with diabetes was $13,243, or 5.2 times greater than the cost for a person without diabetes. In addition, 11 percent of national health care expenditures went to diabetes care.

In response to this growing health burden of diabetes, the diabetes community has three choices: prevent diabetes; cure diabetes; and improve the quality of care of people with diabetes to prevent devastating complications. All three approaches are being actively pursued by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Many government agencies, at all levels, are involved in educational campaigns in an attempt to prevent diabetes, especially type 2. Several approaches to “cure” diabetes are also being pursued: pancreas transplantation, islet cell transplantation (islet cells in the pancreas produce insulin), the development of an artificial pancreas, and genetic manipulation where fat or muscle cells that do not normally make insulin have a human insulin gene inserted and are then transplanted into people with type 1 diabetes.

While there is yet no cure for diabetes, healthy eating, physical activity, and insulin injections are the basic therapies for type 1 diabetes. For those with type 2 diabetes, treatment includes healthy eating, physical activity, alpha-lipoic acid and blood glucose testing. Many people with type 2 may require oral medication to control their glucose levels. People with diabetes must take personal responsibility for their day-to-day care, and keep blood glucose levels from going too low or too high. The key to living a long and healthy life with diabetes is to learn about the disease, exercise daily, follow a diabetes food plan (right portions of healthy foods, less salt and fat), stop smoking, take prescribed medications, get routine medical care, brush your teeth and floss every day, monitor your blood glucose the way the doctor tells you to and remain positive. Using the correct routines, thousands of people with diabetes have lived long, happy and productive lives.

Diabetes Facts and Statistics

What is it?
Diabetes is a disease where the body cannot properly produce or use insulin. Insulin is a hormone that turns the foods you eat into energy. If your body cannot turn food into energy, not only will your cells be starved for energy, you will also build up glucose (sugar) in your blood. This will lead you to have “high blood glucose levels.” Over years, the high blood glucose level can damage major organs like your heart, eyes, and kidneys.

Statistics:
According to the American Diabetes Association, there are 18.2 million people in the United States with Diabetes. That’s 6.3% of the population.

Diabetes is found in both men and women over the age of 20. About one-third of Diabetics do not know that they have it.

African Americans are 1.6 times more likely to have diabetes than Whites.
Latinos are 1.5 times more likely to have diabetes than Whites.

Type 1 is most often found in children, with the peak incidence at puberty. Type 2 is generally found in adults, however an alarmingly growing number of children are now diagnosed with type 2 Diabetes. One of the main causes is overweight.

Types:
Type 1 Diabetes is caused by a total lack of insulin that, in turn, produces high blood glucose levels. Type 1 is most often is seen in children, but can develop in adults. If you have Type 1, your health care provider might recommend scheduled, nutritious meals, exercise, medication, and frequent blood sugar level tests.

Type 2 Diabetes occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin or cannot properly use insulin. This is the most common type. The treatment may be similar to Type 1.

Pre Diabetes or Borderline Diabetes may occur before a Type 2 diagnosis. Blood glucose levels will be higher than normal. Good nutrition and exercise may be recommended by your health care provider as treatment for pre diabetes. Even a slightly high blood sugar level is insidious and could affect major organs over time.

Gestational Diabetes occurs in pregnant women that have high blood glucose levels. This type of Diabetes can harm both Mother and baby. If you have Gestational Diabetes, your health care provider may prescribe meal plans, exercise, daily testing and medicine.

Symptoms:
The main symptom of diabetes is the lack of insulin activity or the inability for the body to create insulin. Other symptoms include:
1. increase in urine production
2. blurry vision
3. irritability
4. extreme hunger
5. excessive weight loss
6. increased fatigue

Causes and Risk Factors:
The exact causes of Diabetes are still unknown. However, heredity, obesity and lack of exercise may play a role. Here are some general risk factors:
1. Your siblings or parents have diabetes.
2. You are more than 20% overweight.
3. You do not exercise.
4. You have had gestational diabetes or you have had a baby over 9 lbs.
5. You have high blood pressure.
6. Your cholesterol level is not normal.

Treatment Options:
According to the American Diabetes Association, people with Diabetes have the same nutritional needs as everyone else. In addition to prescribed medications, well-balanced meals may help you keep your blood glucose level as normal as possible.

Also, just like everyone else, exercise is an important part of staying healthy. Exercising with diabetes does require a few extra safety steps that your health care professional can make you aware of.

Nutritious meals, an exercise routine, along with the help of your doctor may aid you in controlling your Diabetes. Diabetes will never truly go away, but with proper nutrition, exercise and prescribed medications, it can be controlled.

Outlook:
There is no cure for Diabetes, but the treatment options are becoming better than they’ve ever been. Self-monitoring devices for blood glucose levels and administering insulin are the areas that have seen the most improvement. The following are a list of new treatment options that are currently being researched:
1. Insulin Pump Implants – a permanently implanted pump that will measure blood sugar levels and deliver the exact amount of insulin needed.
2. Insulin Capsule Implant – an insulin capsule that can be implanted to continuously release insulin into the bloodstream.
3. Insulin Inhaler – a rapid-acting insulin that is inhaled into the mouth. Currently in clinical trials.
4. Insulin Pill – Currently, the pill form has only been tested in animals.
5. Continuous Monitoring Device – The GlucoWatch Biographer, a wristwatch-like device, has been approved by the FDA. It is intended as a companion for the fingertip blood test to monitor glucose, in order to ensure accurate results.
6. Islet Cell Transplant – For people with Type 1 Diabetes, helps patients become insulin free for up to 14 months after treatment. Currently in clinical trials.
7. Gene Therapy
8. A Diabetes Vaccine – To prevent or slow the progress of Type 1 Diabetes.

Understanding Diabetes

To manage diabetes, it helps to understand how it affects your body. In healthy people, the body turns food into glucose (blood sugar) to use for energy. Insulin, produced by the pancreas, is the hormone responsible for shuttling glucose into the body’s cells where it is either used right away or stored for later use. With diabetes, however, high levels of glucose build up in the blood because either the pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin or the body can’t use the insulin it produces. Your treatment will depend on which problem you have.

Diabetes is broken down into three categories: type 1 or type 2 or gestational.
Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body’s immune system destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, usually leading to a total halt in insulin production. Insulin shots or the use an insulin pump to keep the blood glucose within normal range is a daily activity. Insulin – stimulates the entry of glucose into fat cells. Glucose is a simple sugar that normally enters the cells of liver, fat and muscle to be stored or converted into energy. Because insulin is one of the “major” hormones, it’s also impossible for your body to balance its “minor” hormones until your insulin metabolism is balanced first. Without insulin, blood glucose rises to dangerously high levels, if not treated it can lead to a coma or death. Type 1 most often occurs in children or young adults. Type 1 diabetes is usually referred to as insulin-dependent or juvenile diabetes. Type 1 diabetes often appears suddenly. Knowing the symptoms of diabetes can help you determine what steps to take. Here are some of the symptoms:
High levels of sugar in the blood
High levels of sugar in the urine
Frequent urination
Extreme hunger
Extreme thirst
Extreme weight loss
Weakness and fatigue
Moodiness and irritability
Nausea and vomiting

In type 2, the pancreas produces some insulin, but the body in unable to use it properly. This leads to high levels of glucose in the blood. Because people with type 2 diabetes are often overweight, treatment usually includes weight loss. Until recently, type 2 diabetes was called non-insulin dependent or adult-onset diabetes. Often, type 2 diabetes develops slowly, and symptoms are mild:
Increased thirst
More frequent urination
Edginess, fatigue, and nausea
Increased appetite accompanied by weight loss
Repeated or hard-to-heal infections (for example, skin, gum, vaginal, or bladder)
Blurred vision
Tingling or numbness in the hands or feet
Dry, itchy skin

Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy when blood glucose levels rise above average. After delivery, blood glucose usually returns to normal, though women who have gestational diabetes are at greater risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Gestational diabetes, if left uncontrolled can lead to high blood pressure or a large baby. Most pregnant women are routinely tested for the condition. If you test positive, your doctor and registered dietitian will work closely with you to keep your blood glucose under control.

For anyone with diabetes, it is encouraging to know that the future gets brighter every day for managing the disease. Ongoing research provides people with the most up-to-date information and successful treatment plans possible. Diabetes information along with good diabetes management will help your body to function closer to normal.

To help you feel confident in managing diabetes, you can obtain additional information on what it is, who is at risk, how it’s diagnosed, and how it’s treated. You can also get information on eating well with diabetes. You can learn the role of food in managing your blood sugar levels. You’ll also get the latest nutrition advice; tips for shopping, cooking, and eating out; and the basics of building a meal plan using food exchange tips from the American Diabetes Association and The American Dietetic Association.

Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Weight Loss Nutrition

If you have diabetes you have to be very careful about what you eat. You need to take extra care in managing your blood glucose levels. You can do this by eating healthy, watching your diet, taking medication prescribed by a physician and getting proper exercise.

What foods should you eat? There is a food pyramid for people with diabetes. The Diabetes Food Pyramid divides food into six groups. At the top of the list is fats sweets and alcohol. Since this is the smallest group this tells you to eat very little from this section. The next group is milk, meat, meat substitutes and other proteins. On the pyramid 2 to 3 servings of milk is suggested and 4 to 6oz of meat/protein is mentioned. Then you have your vegetables and fruits. Veggies choose at least 3-5 servings per day and fruits choose at least 2-4 servings a day. The last group which you should eat the most of is breads grains and other starches. You can check with your doctor to get a copy of the diabetes food pyramid to learn more about the correct servings and portion sizes for you.

What is Type 1 Diabetes? This type of diabetes was previously known as juvenile diabetes and is typically diagnosed in children and young adults. The body does not produce insulin. What is insulin? It is a hormone needed to convert starches, sugar (glucose) and other foods into energy. Energy is needed for daily life activities. Type I Diabetes is a chronic condition with no cure, but the outlook for people living with this disease is far better than it was 20 years ago. There has been much advancement in medicine, research and patient education reducing disabling complications and extended the expectancies of life to those without diabetes. In other words people with diabetes 1 can live just as long as people without diabetes with the proper treatment and educating themselves on this disease.

What is Type 2 Diabetes? With type 2 the body does not produce enough insulin or the cell just simply ignores the insulin. Type 2 is the most common form of diabetes. You need insulin in order for the body to be able to use sugar. The basic fuel for your cells is sugar. Insulin takes the sugar from the blood into the cells. When glucose does not go into the cells but builds up in the blood instead it can cause problems. The problems it can cause are over time high glucose levels could hurt your heart, kidneys, nerves and eyes. What are the most common symptoms for adults with Type II Diabetes? The answer is fatigue, blurred vision, thirst and excessive urination. Do you think you may be diabetic? Check with your doctor. With type II diabetes minor weight loss can greatly improve your blood glucose levels.

So remember if you have diabetes please be under a doctors care. Watch what you eat. Limit your sweets, fats and alcohol. You can still eat good tasting foods and there are many diabetic food recipes on the internet. Get on a doctor approved exercise program and keep track of your glucose levels. Learn all you can about your condition so you can take control of it instead of the disease controlling you.

Low Blood Sugar Cause

Skipping meals is just one low blood sugar cause you need to avoid. When you skip meals your body is starved for nutrients and doesn’t really know what to do with itself. When your body does not know what to do with itself it will eventually tell you it needs food by sending signals that it needs to eat.

Some symptoms that your body sends out are blurred vision, dizziness, mental confusion, sweating, weakness, and abnormal behavior. When you experience these symptoms the only thing that should enter your mind is to get something to eat to raise your blood sugar as fast as you can.

Hard candy, a glass of milk, or a peanut butter and honey sandwich are all good choices to raise your blood sugar quickly. Peanut butter and honey is my favorite because the honey will bring your blood sugar up quickly and the peanut butter will hold it there. You can also try orange juice with some sugar dissolved into it too. If you do the juice thing you need to make sure you eat something more substantial afterward to keep your blood sugar within normal limits.

Normal levels of blood sugar are supposed to be between 70 and 110 mg/dl. When you consistently fall below the level of 70mg/dl then you are considered hypoglycemic and must get treatment started right away. Hypoglycemia is considered a forerunner of diabetes. Your doctor will no doubt have yoiu start checking your blood sugar and keeping a log every day. After a month or so of keeping this log then he or she will want to see it to see where your blood sugars tend to be at certain times during the day. This will help your doctor personalize a treatment for you.

If you are diabetic, low blood sugar cause may be attributed to your medication. If you have been on the same dose of insulin for some time you need to discuss with your doctor a medication adjustment if you have been having episodes of hypoglycemia especially during the night or first thing in the morning. There are a number of different types of insulin that you can use to control your diabetes.

Other causes that contribute to hypoglycemia are eating too many carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are converted into sugar very quickly after ingesting them and this causes a spike in your blood sugar. With your blood sugar spiking, your pancreas responds by flooding your bloodstream with insulin to take care of the increased sugar level.

The only problem is that the sugar spike caused by carbohydrates is short lived and the amount of insulin pumped into your bloodstream ends up to be too much and when the sugar is metabolized then you are left with a sharply dropping blood sugar and you find you have to eat again very shortly to bring your blood sugar back up.

Eating several small meals throughout your day is the best way to combat and control your low blood sugar problems. No more missing meals, not eating enough at a meal, drinking in excess, or even strenuous exercise can be low blood sugar cause.